Four species, White Spruce (Picea glauca), Engelmann Spruce (Pice aengelmannhl), Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta), and Alpine Fir (Abbes lasiocarpa) comprise the spruce-pine-fir species group. ALL yield high grade timber with relatively small, sound tight knots.
The combination of the species and growth conditions in western Canada result in tall straight trees which produces strong straight lumber that when dried correctly is stable and ideal for construction.
lumber is a distinctly white wood, with very little color variation between springwood and summerwood. The wood has a bright, clean appearance, ranging in color from white to pale yellow, with a fine straight grain and smooth texture.
Kiln dried lumber is used as a structural framing material in all types of residential, commercial, industrial and agricultural building applications. Kiln dried lumber is also used extensively in the manufacturing of prefabricated housing, trusses and other structural components. In addition to producing high quality structural lumber, with a little preparation, can be made into very appealing, economical solid wood furniture.
Structural lumber, trusses, prefabricated housing, exterior decking, preservative treated poles, railway ties, outdoor furniture.
Kiln drying inhibits natural staining of the wood, improves its strength and stiffness, enhances its appearance and increases its resistance to decay and attack by insects. has a high strength-to-weight ratio and is well known for its outstanding working properties. It takes and holds nails exceptionally well and is easily worked with hand and power tools. It has good gluing, painting and staining properties.
Density (air dry average): 480 kg/cubic meters
Specific gravity (oven dry average): 0.47
Modulus of elasticity: 12 300 MPa
Modulus of rupture: 81.1 Mpa
Combination of laser grading and manual grading is used to ensure that the grade accuracy is at its highest possible level. A laser grading optimizer grades lumber. The online laser scans each piece as it passes to the grading station. This scan checks for wane and straightness and can measure deviations to an accuracy not possible by human eye. The manual graders then look for other defects that will affect the grade and intended use. This combination allows our graders to concentrate on fewer defects and make better grading decisions.
• kiln Dried 22 mm x 110 mm x 4 mtrs above
• kiln Dried 38mm x 150mm x 6 mtrs above
• Kiln Dried lumber, Humidity ratio 13%-15%,on the each lumber have the kiln Dried marks.
In Canada, nearly one third of total energy consumption is used for the heating, cooling, and lighting of buildings. Canada’s current concerns over energy efficiency in the construction sector underline the importance of making an effort to reduce this consumption.
Environmental studies at various universities across the globe clearly point to the fact that wood frame construction is the most energy efficient building system, both in terms of operational energy usage and the embodied energy that goes into manufacturing building materials.
In colder climates, the electric energy consumption of modern wood frame homes is:
• 9.43% lower than that of light steel house; and
• 10.92% lower than that of concrete houses.
While in more moderate climates, the electric energy consumption of wood frame houses is:
• 8.79% lower than that of light steel house
• 7.33% lower than that of concrete homes
Wood itself is a natural thermal insulator due to the millions of tiny air pockets within its cellular structure. The thermal insulating ability of softwood is 10 times that of concrete and masonry, and 400 times that of solid steel.
Wood frame buildings are truly “green” buildings as they reduce energy
consumption and use wood materials from renewable, sustainable forestry resources. Furthermore, the production of wood building materials uses less energy and results in significantly less air, water and solid waste pollution than steel or concrete building materials. Wood structures present the least potential damage to the environment. When measured in monetary terms, the environmental impact of wood structures is less than half of that incurred by concrete structures and nearly one third less than steel structures.
More specifically, their results showed that the production of structural wood materials used in a wood frame buildings consumes:
• 28% less energy and 39% less water than equivalent materials used in a steel structures; and
• 45% less energy and 46% less water than equivalent materials used in concrete structures.
In North America about one million homes (including single and multi-family residences) are built every year using modern wood frame construction technology. Adaptable to any climate, this system is widely used in Europe, Middle East, Africa and parts of Asia, such as Japan and Korea.
Wood-frame construction incorporates wall, floor and roof assemblies that are strong, easy to insulate and quick and efficient to build. Using a combination of materials and modern engineering, wood frame homes are designed to meet the requirements of the environment for which they are built and can withstand conditions of high wind, heavy rain and even earthquakes. When properly built and termite treated cared for, these homes can easily have a life-span upto 50 years or more.
Woods immense flexibility makes it the best choice for creating customized structural or decorative designs. Walls that are up to 20% thinner than standard concrete walls, provide for greater internal floor space and the ability to embed infrastructure (electrical wiring, plumbing and ventilation ducts) in floor, ceiling and wall cavities, allowing architects and designers from having to design around these components.
Making changes is virtually impossible when walls are poured in concrete or when expensive and time-consuming reworking of the construction material is needed off site. However, wood buildings can be easily redesigned to suit changing needs, whether it be the addition of a new room or moving a window or door.
Both research and experience confirm that fire safety in a house or apartment has little to do with the combustibility of the structural materials used in its construction. In fact, the occupants’ safety is far more dependent on their own awareness of fire hazards (open flames etc.), the contents of their home (furniture etc.) and the fire protection measures designed into the building.
When comparing the fire safety of wood versus concrete or steel, wood is stronger than you might think. Although wood is a combustible material, a layer of char is created when it burns, and this helps to protect the wood and maintain the strength and structural integrity of the wood inside. For this reason a heavy timber will stand longer than a comparable steel beam which will melt from the heat before the timber burns through.
Wood frame construction is a complete building system in which a combination of materials and design elements contribute to creating a durable, healthy and safe environment. Fire retardant materials such as gypsum board line the walls of the interior and ceiling, with additional layers used in higher risk areas such as the kitchen. Practices such as these ensure the modern wood frame building system meets and complies with Canadian National Building Codes covering structural and fire safety regulations.
It is a common misconception that water is woods enemy. In fact, many wood buildings exist in rainy and humid places – it’s simply a matter of knowing how to manage and design for water in buildings.
Wood and water are typically very compatible – wood can absorb and release large quantities of moisture without problems, and it’s only when wood gets too wet for too long that problems can arise. If buildings are properly constructed to shed water, wood performs well as a structural building material in all types of climates.
Modern Wood Frame Construction incorporates a variety of materials and design features, which make it effective in handling sound transmission and privacy issues, even in commercial or multi-family residential dwellings where sound insulation is particularly important. In high traffic areas, natural cavities in wall and floor assemblies are filled with sound insulating materials.
In addition, layering materials of varying densities, incorporating new technology such as sound dispersing metal channels and using design features such as staggered walls studs, all help to significantly reduce sound transmission and create a peaceful and private environment.
Wood generates positive feelings because of its warm and natural attributes, and evidence suggests that this can contribute to an individual’s overall sense of well-being. It also helps make a building more comfortable by moderating indoor humidity. During times of high humidity, it absorbs moisture; during dry periods, it releases moisture into the air.
Research has found that interior wood paneling can reduce peak moisture loads in a typical home by 10-25%, making it more comfortable and reducing the need for air conditioning and ventilation. Wood floors contribute to better air quality as the accumulation of dust and microbes can be reduced through regular sweeping, mopping and vacuuming.